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Contents
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BOOK I INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 90 pages
  Chapter I - Overview
1.01 Aim of Philosophy of Science  
1.02 Computational Philosophy of Science  
1.03 Two Perspectives on Language  
1.04 Dimensions of Language 
1.05 Classifications of Functional Topics 
1.06 Classification of Modern Philosophies

Chapter II – Three Modern Philosophies

2.01 Romanticism  
2.02 Positivism  
2.03 Contemporary Pragmatism

Chapter III - Philosophy of Language
3.01 Synchronic and Diachronic Analysis 
3.02 Object Language and Metalanguage  
3.03 Dimensions of Language  
3.04 Syntactical Dimension  
3.05 Syntactical Rules  
3.06 Mathematical Language  
3.07 Logical Quantification in Mathematics  
3.08 Semantical Dimension  
3.09 Nominalist vs. Conceptualist Semantics 
3.10 Naturalistic vs. Artifactual Semantics  
3.11 Romantic Semantics  
3.12 Positivist Semantics  
3.13 Positivist Thesis of Meaning Invariance  
3.14 Positivist Analytic-Synthetic Dichotomy  
3.15 Positivist Observation-Theory Dichotomy  
3.16 Contemporary Pragmatist Semantics  
3.17 Pragmatist Semantics Illustrated
3.18 Rejection of the Observation-Theory Dichotomy  
3.19 Rejection of Meaning Invariance  
3.20 Rejection of the Analytic-Synthetic Dichotomy  
3.21 Semantical Rules
3.22 Componential vs. Wholistic Semantics  
3.23 Componential Artifactual Semantics Illustrated  
3.24 Semantic Values  
3.25 Univocal and Equivocal Terms  
3.26 Signification and Supposition  
3.27 Aside on Metaphor  
3.28 Clear and Vague Meaning  
3.29 Semantics of Mathematical Language  
3.30 Semantical State Descriptions  
3.31 Diachronic Comparative-Static Analysis  
3.32 Dynamic Diachronic Analysis  
3.33 Computational Philosophy of Science  
3.34 An Interpretation Issue
3.35 Ontological Dimension  
3.36 Metaphysical and Scientific Realism  
3.37 Ontological Relativity Defined  
3.38 Ontological Relativity Illustrated  
3.39 Causality  
3.40 Ontology of Mathematical Language  
3.41 Pragmatic Dimension  
3.42 Semantic Definitions of Theory Language  
3.43 Pragmatic Definition of Theory Language  
3.44 Pragmatic Definition of Test-Design Language  
3.45 Pragmatic Definition of Observation Language
3.46 Observation and Test Execution  
3.47 Scientific Professions  
3.48 Semantic Individuation of Theories

Chapter IV – Philosophy of Science Topics
4.01 Institutionalized Aim of Science  
4.02 Positivist Aim  
4.03 Romantic Aim  
4.04 More Recent Ideas  
4.05 Aim of Maximizing “Explanatory Coherence”  
4.06 Contemporary Pragmatist Aim  
4.07 Institutional Change  
4.08 Philosophy’s Cultural Lag  
4.09 Cultural Lags among Sciences  
4.10 Scientific Discovery  
4.11 Discovery Systems  
4.12 Types of Theory Development  
4.13 Examples of Successful Discovery Systems  
4.14 Scientific Criticism  
4.15 Logic of Empirical Testing  
4.16 Test Logic Illustrated  
4.17 Semantics of Empirical Testing  
4.18 Test-Design Revision  
4.19 Empirical Underdetermination  
4.20 Scientific Pluralism  
4.21 Scientific Truth  
4.22 Nonempirical Criteria  
4.23 The “Best Explanation” Criteria  
4.24 Nonempirical Linguistic Constraints  
4.25 Cognition Constraint  
4.26 Communication Constraint  
4.27 Scientific Explanation
     
BOOK II ERNST MACH AND PIERRE DUHEM ON PHYSICAL THEORY 26 pages

Mach's Phenomenalism 
Mach's Philosophy of Science 
Mach's History of Mechanics  
Duhem on Physical Theory and Metaphysics 
Duhem's Stratified Semantics for Physics  
Duhem's Philosophy of Science 
Duhem's History of Physics  
The New Physics vs the Old Philosophy  
Comment and Conclusion

     
BOOK III RUDOLF CARNAP ON SEMANTICAL SYSTEMS AND W.V.O. QUINE'S PRAGMATIST CRITIQUE 78 pages
  Logical Constructionalism 
Einstein and Mathematical vs. Physical Geometry 
The Aufbau and "Rational Reconstruction" 
Logical Syntax of Language 
Semantical Systems: Definitions and Characteristics 
Semantical Systems: Ontological vs. Linguistic Issues  
Semantical Systems: Physics and the Reduction of Theo
Semantical Systems: Probability and Induction 
Semantical Systems: Information Theory 
Shreider's Semantic Theory of Information 
The Philosophy of Science     
Hempel's Critique of Analyticity 
Carnap's Reply to Hempel 
Quine's Pragmatist Critiques 
Quine's Critique of Reductionism 
Quine's Critique of Analyticity 
Quine's Rejection of First Philosophy 
Comment and Conclusion
     
BOOK IV WERNER HEISENBERG AND THE SEMANTICS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS 47 pages
  Heisenberg's Discovery and Einstein's Semantical Views 
Heisenberg's Discovery and Einstein's Ontological Criteria 
Bohr's Influence on Heisenberg and Issues with Einstein 
Semantical Revision and Heisenberg’s Doctrine of Closed-off Theories 
Bohr's "Forms of Perception" and Neo-Kantianism 
On Scientific Revolutions 
Heisenberg’s Philosophy of Science  
Comment and Conclusion
     
BOOK V POPPER ON SCIENTIFIC CRITICISM AND THE SEMANTICS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS 45 pages
  Einstein's Influence and the Falsificationist Thesis of Criticism, Explanation, Information, and the Growth of Science 
Against Psychologism, Induction, and Naturalistic Semantics 
On Computers, Induction Machines, and Scientific Discovery 
The Schism in Physics and Metaphysical Research Programmes 
Lande's New Foundations of Quantum Physics 
Popper's Particle-Propensity Interpretation of Quantum Theory 
On Crucial Experiments and Scientific Revolutions 
The Philosophy of Science 
Comment and Conclusion
     
BOOK VI THOMAS KUHN ON REVOLUTION AND PAUL FEYERABEND ON ANARCHY 101 pages
  Conant On Prejudice And The Dynamic View Of Science 
Kuhn’s Aristotle Experience 
Kuhn on the Copernican Revolution 
Kuhn on the Structure of Scientific Revolutions 
The Evolution of Kuhn’s Philosophy 
Popper's Criticism of Kuhn’s Normal Science Thesis 
Feyerabend on Theory Proliferation vs. Consensus Paradigm 
Shapere's Criticism of Kuhn's Concept of Paradigm 
Kuhn Replies 
Kuhn, Normal Science, and the Academic Sociologists 
Kuhn’s Linguistic Analysis of Incommensurability 
Kuhn's Philosophy of Science 
Nagel and Feyerabend on Meaning Variance 
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis 
Feyerabend on Semantic Incommensurability 
Feyerabend on Scientific Anarchy 
Feyerabend on Quantum Theory 
Feyerabend on Relativism, Historicism, and Realism 
Feyerabend's Criticism of Popper 
Feyerabend's Philosophy of Science 
Comments and Conclusion
     
BOOK VII RUSSELL HANSON, DAVID BOHM, AND OTHERS ON THE SEMANTICS OF DISCOVERY 78 pages
  Bohm's Early Copenhagen Views 
Bohm's Agenda for Future Microphysics 
Bohm's Hidden-Variable Interpretation of Quantum Theory 
Bohm’s Critique of Heisenberg’s Copenhagen Interpretation 
Bohm and Bell on the EPR Experiment and Nonlocality     
Bohm on Perception and Metaphor in Scientific Discovery 
Bohm on Mathematics and Scientific Discovery 
Bohm’s Philosophy of Science 
Hanson on the Copenhagen Interpretation and Scientific Discovery 
Peirce, Retroductive Logic, and Semantical Constraints in Discovery 
Hanson on Perception, Observation and Theory 
Hanson's Philosophy of Science 
Hesse on Models and Analogy 
Hesse on Metaphor     
Comment and Conclusion  
     
BOOK VIII HERBERT SIMON, PAUL THAGARD AND OTHERS ON DISCOVERY SYSTEMS 199 pages
  Thagard’s Psychologistic Computational Philosophy of Science     
Thagard on Conceptual Change, Scientific Revolutions, and System PI     
Thagard on Discovery by Analogy and Systems ACME and ARCS     
Thagard on Criticism by “Explanatory Coherence”     
Thagard on Explanation and the Aim of Science     
Herbert Simon and Logic Theorist     
Neoclassical Maximizing Rationality and Weber's Ideal Types     
Simon's Postulate of Bounded Rationality and "Satisficing"     
Bounded Rationality, Institutionalism, and Functionalism     
Human Problem Solving, Cognitive Psychology and Heuristics     
On Scientific Discovery and Philosophy of Science     
The Theory of Discovery Systems     
BACON and Other Discovery Systems     
Simon's Philosophy of Science     
Muth's Rational Expectations "Hypothesis"   
Haavelmo's Structural-Equations Agenda And Its Early Critics     
Mitchell’s Institutionalist Critique     
Muth’s Rationalist Expectations Agenda     
Rejection of Expectations Data and Evolution of VAR Models     
Litterman's BVAR Models and Discovery System     
Hickey's Metascience or "Logical Pragmatism"     
Hickey’s Linguistic Analysis     
Hickey’s Functional Analysis     
Hickey's METAMODEL Discovery System      
Parsons’ Romantic Sociology     
Habermas on Weber     
Merton’s Critique of Parsons     
Lundberg’s Positivist Sociology     
The METAMODEL System Applied to Sociology     
A Pragmatist Critique of Academic Sociology’s Weltanschauung     
The “Last Sociologist”     
Sonquist on Simulating the Research Analyst with AID     
Comment and Conclusion

Appendix I: A Quantitative-Functionalist Model
Appendix II: Rejections and Rejoinders

 
BIBLIOGRAPHY   19 pages